From cleaning and polishing of the teeth to using lasers for the treatments of gum infections and using implants to replace a missing tooth The advancements in the field of periodontics are unimaginable.
Every day, every hour, every minute doctors, dentists, and scientists are working towards their vision of making revolutionaries to treat gum infections in terms of the technology, the new inventions in the field of technology, the techniques to treat a particular case, as well as the improving skills and efficiency.
Probiotics in Gum Disease
Sometimes, there are alterations in the defense mechanism of our body because of bacteria. These harmful bacteria may cause inflammation of your gums. Multiplication of the bacteria gives rise to a reduction in the bone which supports the teeth. The end result can be a loss of the teeth. The bacteria then invade into the blood circulation. Hence gum problems are often associated with medical conditions like diabetes, heart disease, and rheumatoid arthritis.
A group of ‘good bacteria’ known as lactobacilli can balance out the harmful effects of the ‘bad bacteria’. Scientists have tested chewing gum infused with lactobacilli on patients with gum problems. Two weeks of chewing this gum caused these patients to have a reduced level of plaque/soft deposits on their teeth (which is a major reason for gingivitis). With more research, we will be able to use this probiotic treatment commonly with patients having gum disease.
Our gums are attached to the tooth in healthy conditions. Our gums hold the tooth inside the bone. there is a small space between our gums and the tooth. Failure to maintain good oral hygiene results in loss of gum attachment with the tooth forming pockets. The depth of these pockets increase and gums loses its attachment with the tooth and the tooth begins to shake. Perio chips are used to reduce the depth of these pockets.
Perio chips are biodegradable chips containing 2.5mg of chlorhexidine gluconate which is antiseptic and antibacterial in action. It reduces the bacterial load in the mouth and can be a treatment option to avoid gum surgeries. The Perio chips are inserted in the space between the gums and the tooth that is the gum pockets for 7-10 days after the regular cleaning and polishing is done by the dentist.
Placing Perio chips may cause discomfort and pain in the initial 24-48 hours. Initially, it releases approximately 40% of the chlorhexidine within the first 24 hours and then releasing the remaining chlorhexidine in an almost linear fashion for 7-10 days.
One can expect good gum health with a reduction in pocket depth and better oral hygiene after this treatment.
Vaccines in periodontics
Infections of the gums are multifactorial. Factors like the micro-organisms present in the mouth, the number of bacteria, habits like smoking, drinking alcohol, etc or even genetics also play a role in causing gum infections.
The main culprits of the gum infections are the P.gingivalis, A.Actinomycetemcomitans, T.Forsythennsis group of micro-organisms.
Vaccines help in severe gum infections with loss of bone structure and bone density, severe inflammation of the gums and also in those cases where gum infections cannot resolve with medicated mouthwashes. Studies show vaccines are also helpful in treating diabetes-induced gum diseases.
There are two types of vaccines
1. Plasmids are fused with the DNA of a particular pathogen(disease-causing micro-organism) of interest and injected in an animal to produce antibodies. The antibodies are produced in the body of the animal are then transferred to the host(man) for immunization.
2. Live viral vector vaccines – In which the DNA and RNA of the viruses or bacterias(vectors) have been genetically engineered to produce proteins. These vectors are then injected in the host (man). The proteins are then generated inside the body of the host to induce an immune response.
Studies show the use of these vaccines have known to reduce the occurrence of gum infections. However, there are many other factors involved and sometimes vaccines may not be able to prevent the onset or progressions of the gum disease.
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